Making a TodoMVC implementation using Callbags and React, introducing the needed tools as we go!

Building TodoMVC with Callbags and React

By: David


A while back I wrote about a TodoMVC implementation using Callbags. It used SnabbDOM for rendering, and thus didn't really need to address the problem of how to marry Callbags with an actual framework.

In this post we take on that challenge through rewriting the TodoMVC solution to use React instead! The code for the final result is available at, but we'll walk through the highlights below.

The old app

Let's begin by reviewing what we already have. The previous implementation was built like this...

...which translates to this bootstrapping code:

const actions = makeActions(window, window.document.getElementById('app'));
const state = makeStateStream(actions);
const view = makeViewStream(state);

makeSideEffects(window, actions, view);

Here's a brief rundown of the involved functions:

  • In makeActions we create a bunch of action streams by using callbag-from-delegated-event. Here's an example:

    const newTodoActions = pipe(
      fromDelegatedEvent(root, '.new-todo', 'keyup'),
      filter(e => e.key === 'Enter'),
      mapTo({type: 'NEWTODO'}),

    The function returns all of the action streams in an object, and throw in an allActions stream for good measure.

  • The makeState function turns the actions into a stream of app state:

    function makeStateStream(actions){
      return pipe(
        scan(augmenter(reducer), initialState),

    The callbag-scan operator reduces the stream, which means the end result of this file is a miniature Redux implementation.

  • The makeView function simply maps the state emissions to JSX:

    function makeViewStream(state){
      return pipe(
        map(s => (

    This really is just a templating layer - we're not dealing with event handlers or anything of the sort, we just express what the UI should look like given the state. In other words we could very easily replace SnabbDOM with something like Handlebars.

  • Inside makeSideEffects we do three things:

    • update the DOM for all view emissions (using SnabbDOM), getting the DOM reference from window:

    • focus the edit Todo input on emissions from actions.editActions:

        forEach(() => window.document.querySelector(".editing .edit").focus())
    • focus the new Todo input on emissions from a bunch of actions in a similar manner as above

The three problems

As you've seen, we're reading and writing to the DOM throughout our solution. Which of course rhymes rather badly with a framework, which wants to own the DOM and expects you to express your intentions through the framework instead!

All things considered, we have 3 problems to solve in order to be able to use React efficiently:

  1. We need to let React capture our DOM events
  2. We need to make React rerender when there's new state
  3. We need to make React do the other focusing side effects

We'll now walk through these one at a time!

Problem 1 - catching DOM events

Let's start with the events! As you saw above, the action streams are seeded with a source created from fromDelegatedEvent, which sets a listener directly on the DOM.

But, in React we are expected to reference our handlers in the render output!

<button onClick={this.launchMissile}>Launch</button>

In a situation where we use Redux, we would probably call an action creator in that handler:


We want to do something very similar now, but, what does that translate to when we have Callbags instead of Redux?

Introducing callbag-from-function

There are two facts we cannot escape:

  • React connects a DOM event with a function
  • The action streams must start with a source

In other words - we need the missing piece in this chain:

To solve this I made callbag-from-function - it is a factory function that takes a function (or defaults to the identity function), and returns an emitter and a source:

The emitter behaves exactly like the passed-in function, except it will also make the source emit all returned values.

In the React version of the app I've added an events.js file looking like this:

import fromFunction from 'callbag-from-function';

export default {
  clearCompleted: fromFunction(),
  // ... lots more ...

In the React app we'd then use the emitter as handler in the JSX output from render...

<button onClick={clearCompleted.emitter}>Clear completed</button>

...and in the new version of makeActions we'd seed the relevant stream thusly:

const clearCompletedActions = pipe(
  clearCompleted.source, // <--- instead of using `fromDelegatedEvent`
  mapTo({type: 'CLEARCOMPLETED'})

And so we have solved problem number 1 - DOM events are now handled by React, yet still piped into the Callbag layer!

Problem 2 - rerendering on new state

In the earlier solution, rerendering is one of the side effects dealt with in makeSideEffects:

  forEach(([cur,prev,isFirst]) => {
    patch(isFirst ? window.document.getElementById('renderoutput') : prev, cur)

There's some SnabbDOM shenanigans going on here, but the essence is that whenever the view stream outputs a new VirtualDOM emission, we mutate the DOM.

In React we instead want our App component to rerender, presumably by passing in new props. How do we accomplish that?

Introducing callbag-connect-react

The situation is very similar to using Redux with React - if we have Redux as a data layer, then we want to rerender our React app whenever the store has new data. Commonly we'd use ReactRedux to automatically pass that data into the top of our component pyramid as props.

I've created a very similar decorator tool for Callbags, published in the npm package callbag-connect-react. We feed the decorator an object where...

  • each key is a prop name
  • each value is a callbag whose emissions will populate the prop named by the key.
@connect({appState: stateStream})
class App extends React.Component {
  // ...implementation using `this.props.appState`

With the above code, the appState prop will always update to whatever stateStream emits.

And so we have solved the rendering problem - our React component will now rerender for every new state emission!

Problem 3 - other side effects

That took care of one of the side effects, but we have two left; focusing input fields at various points in the component life cycle. They're both very similar, so I'll just talk through one of them here. In the final app they both benefit from the same solution.

The old code in makeSideEffects looks like this:

  forEach(() => window.document.querySelector(".editing .edit").focus())

Here's the kicker - there's no analogue for this in Redux. Redux is built around the notion that we have a single source that is fed into the app, causing a rerender each time. But what we have here is a different source, where we want something other than rendering to happen.

We can move the actual focusing call to a .focusEditField method in the component easily enough:

class App extends React.Component {
    this.editField = React.createRef();
    return (
      // JSX using `this.editField` as ref for the relevant input element

But how do we make it so that .focusEditField is called when editActions emit?

Introducing signals

To handle this I've made connect also take a second parameter; an array of what I call signals.

Each signal is an array of two elements:

  • the first is a callbag source
  • the second is a callback function to be invoked when that source emits. That callback will be invoked with...
    • a reference to the component instance
    • the value that was emitted from the source (not used below)
  {appState: stateStream},
  [ [actions.editActions, comp => comp.focusEdit()] ]
class App extends React.Component {
  // ...

Now, whenever editActions emit, the focusEdit method will be invoked!

Note that the signals are nothing like mapDispatchToProps from ReactRedux - that just lets us dispatch without a (direct) reference to store.dispatch. The signals here solve a completely different problem - acting on a stream beyond the first - which, again, is beyond the scope of Redux (without use of exotic middleware).

The final result

The old app had this flow...

...which meant this bootstrapping:

const actions = makeActions(window, window.document.getElementById('app'));
const state = makeStateStream(actions);
const view = makeViewStream(state);

makeSideEffects(window, actions, view);

The new, React-based app - with the repo - ended upp looking like this:

Here's the new bootstrapping code:

const events = makeEvents();
const actions = makeActions(events, window);
const state = makeStateStream(actions);
const App = makeApp(state, actions, events);


Let's tour the involved factory functions and compare them to their older counterparts!

  • The makeEvents function was a new addition, using callbag-from-function to create bridges between normal JavaScript functions and callbag sources:

    function makeEvents(){
      return {
        clearCompleted: fromFunction(),
        toggleTodo: fromFunction(),
        // ...

    This is (somewhat) comparable to (parts of) the action creator layer in Redux.

  • The makeActions function is almost exactly the same as before, except we use sources from makeEvents to seed the streams instead of setting event handlers ourselves:

    const clearCompletedActions = pipe(
      clearCompleted.source, // <--- instead of using `fromDelegatedEvent`
      mapTo({type: 'CLEARCOMPLETED'})
  • The new makeState function is completely identical to the old one!

  • The makeApp function replaces the old makeView and makeSidEffects. This makes sense, since...

    • the .render method plays the role of makeView, turning app state into JSX
    • the .connected state source triggers the rerender, replacing the first side effect in makeSideEffects
    • the signals take care of the other side effects

    The makeApp function is implemented as a factory that returns the component definition:

    function makeApp(state, actions, events){
      const shouldFocusNew = merge(
        actions.initActions, actions.deleteActions, actions.confirmEditActions,
        actions.newTodoActions, actions.cancelEditActions
        {appState: stateStream},
          [shouldFocusNew, comp => comp.focusNew()],
          [actions.editActions, comp => comp.focusEdit()]
      class App extends React.Component { ... }
      return App;

Wrapping up

Now we have successfully used callbags in conjunction with a framework! Was this actually a good idea?

I feel like there are two separate comparisons to be made:

  • SnabbDOM VS React: In other words, did we gain anything when switching out a templating solution for a framework (ok, I know not all agree that React can be called a framework...)? Well, maybe we didn't gain much in this small app, but the newer version definitely scales better, and we're touching the DOM way less.

  • Callbag VS Redux: Now this is more relevant - are we better of using Callbags for our data layer as opposed to Redux? This will always be a very subjective discussion, but my main takeaway is that I'm very happy about how easy it is to express other sideeffects with callbags.

What I definitely do know is that I enjoy juggling callbags very much, and look forward to an opportunity to try it out on a larger scale project. And now that we have a working setup for marrying callbags with React, the threshold for such an adventure is way lower!

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